What are Smart Cities?
Smart cities are the urban areas that use different types of electronic Internet of Things (IoT) sensors to collect data and then use insights gained from that data to manage assets, resources, and services efficiently.
This includes data collected from citizens, devices, and assets that are processed and analyzed to monitor and manage traffic and transportation systems, power plants, utilities, water supply networks, waste management, crime detection, information systems, schools, libraries, hospitals, and other community services.
The Smart city concept integrates information and communication technology (ICT), and various physical devices connected to the IoT network to optimize the efficiency of city operations and services and connect to citizens. Smart city technology allows city officials to interact directly with both community and city infrastructure and to monitor what is happening in the city and how the city is evolving.
ICT is used to enhance the quality, performance, and interactivity of urban services, to reduce costs and resource consumption and to increase contact between citizens and government. Smart city applications are developed to manage urban flows and allow for real-time responses. A Smart city may, therefore, be more prepared to respond to challenges than one with a simple “transactional” relationship with its citizens.
Frameworks For Smart Cities
The creation, integration, and adoption of smart city capabilities require a unique set of frameworks to realize the focus areas of opportunity and innovation central to Smart city projects. The frameworks can be divided into 5 main dimensions which include numerous related categories of Smart city development:
A Smart city relies heavily on the deployment of technology. Different combinations of technological infrastructure interact to form the array of Smart city technologies with varying levels of interaction between human and technological systems.
1) Digital: A service-oriented infrastructure is required to connect individuals and devices in a smart city. These include innovation services and communication infrastructure. Yovanof, G. S. & Hazapis, G. N. define a digital city as “a connected community that combines broadband communications infrastructure; a flexible, service-oriented computing infrastructure based on open industry standards; and, innovative services to meet the needs of governments and their employees, citizens and businesses.”
2)Intelligent: Cognitive technologies, such as artificial intelligence and machine learning, can be trained on the data generated by connected city devices to identify patterns. The efficacy and impact of particular policy decisions can be quantified by cognitive systems studying the continuous interactions of humans with their urban surroundings.
3)Ubiquitous: A ubiquitous city provides access to public services through any connected device. U-city is an extension of the digital city concept because of the facility in terms of accessibility to every infrastructure.
4)Wired: The physical components of IT systems are crucial to early-stage Smart city development. Wired infrastructure is required to support the IoT and wireless technologies central to more interconnected living. A wired city environment provides general access to continually updated digital and physical infrastructure. The latest in telecommunications, robotics, IoT, and various connected technologies can then be deployed to support human capital and productivity.
5)Hybrid: A hybrid city is the combination of a physical conurbation and a virtual city related to the physical space. This relationship can be one of virtual design or the presence of a critical mass of virtual community participants in a physical urban space. Hybrid spaces can serve to actualize future-state projects for Smart city services and integration.
6)Information city: The multiplicity of interactive devices in a Smart city generates a large quantity of data. How that information is interpreted and stored is critical to Smart city growth and security.
Smart city initiatives have measurable positive impacts on the quality of life of its citizens and visitors. The human framework of a Smart city – its economy, knowledge networks, and human support systems – is an important indicator of its success.
1)Creativity: Arts and culture initiatives are common focus areas in Smart city planning. Innovation is associated with intellectual curiosity and creativeness, and various projects have demonstrated that knowledge workers participate in a diverse mix of cultural and artistic activities.
2)Learning: Since mobility is a key area of Smart city development, building a capable workforce through education initiatives is necessary. A city’s learning capacity includes its education system, including available workforce training and support, and its cultural development and exchange.
3)Humanity: Numerous Smart city programs focus on soft infrastructure development, like increasing access to voluntary organizations and designated safe zones. This focus on social and relational capital means diversity, inclusion, and ubiquitous access to public services is worked in city planning.
4)Knowledge: The development of a knowledge economy is central to Smart city projects. Smart cities seeking to be hubs of economic activity in emerging tech and service sectors stress the value of innovation in city development.
According to Moser, M. A., since the 1990s, the Smart Communities movement took shape as a strategy to broaden the base of users involved in IT. Members of these Communities are people that share their interests and work in a partnership with government and other institutional organizations to push the use of IT to improve the quality of daily life as a consequence of different worsening in daily actions. Eger, J. M. said that a smart community makes a conscious and agreed-upon decision to deploy technology as a catalyst for solving its social and business needs. It is very important to understand that this use of IT and the consequent improvement could be more demanding without institutional help; indeed institutional involvement is essential to the success of smart community initiatives. Again, Moser, M. A. explained that “building and planning a smart community seeks for smart growth”; smart growth is essential for the partnership between citizen and institutional organizations to react to worsening trends in daily issues like traffic congestion, school overcrowding, and air pollution. However, it is important to note that technological propagation is not an end in itself, but only a means to reinvent cities for a new economy and society. To sum up, it is possible to assert that any Smart city initiatives necessitate the government’s support for their success.
Smart cities use data and technology to create efficiencies, improve sustainability, create economic development, and enhance the quality of life factors for people living and working in the city. It also means that the city has a smarter energy infrastructure. More formally, a Smart city is: “… An urban area that has securely integrated technology across the information . . . and Internet of Things (IoT) sectors to better manage a city’s assets.”
A Smart city is powered by “smart connections” for various items such as street lighting, smart buildings, distributed energy resources (DER), data analytics, and smart transportation. Amongst these things, energy is paramount; this is why utility companies play a key role in smart cities. Electric companies, working partnerships with city officials, technology companies and a number of other institutions, are among the major players that helped accelerate the growth of America’s smart cities.
Data Management framework
Smart cities employ a combination of data collection, processing, and disseminating technologies in conjunction with networking and computing technologies and data security and privacy measures encouraging the application of innovation to promote the overall quality of life for its citizens and covering dimensions that include: utilities, health, transportation, entertainment, and government services.
India Smart Cities Mission
And For this Government of India takes many initiatives to develop smart cities and they name it Smart Cities Mission In this mission the Government of India develops 100 smart cities across the country making them citizen-friendly and sustainable. The Union Ministry of Urban Development is responsible for implementing the mission in collaboration with the state governments of the respective cities. On 7 September 2019, the 10,000-acre Aurangabad Industrial City (AURIC) in Aurangabad, Maharashtra was inaugurated as the first greenfield industrial smart city of India.
Cities will be selected based on the Smart Cities Challenge, where cities will compete in a countrywide competition to obtain the benefits from this mission. As of January 2018, 99 cities have been selected to be upgraded as part of the Smart Cities Mission after they defeated other cities in the challenge.
It is a five-year program in which, except for West Bengal, all of the Indian states and Union territories are participating by nominating at least one city for the Smart Cities Challenge. Financial aid will be given by the central and state governments between 2017-2022 to the cities, and the mission will start showing results from 2022 onwards.
Each city will create a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV), headed by a full-time CEO, to implement the Smart Cities Mission. Centre and state government will provide ₹1,000 crores (US$140 million) funding to the company, as the equal contribution of ₹500 crores (US$72 million) each. The company has to raise additional funds from the financial market as a debt or equity.
“100 Smart Cities Mission” was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 25 June 2015. A total of ₹98,000 crores (US$14 billion) has been approved by the Indian Cabinet for the development of 100 smart cities and the rejuvenation of 500 others. ₹48,000 crores (US$6.9 billion) for the Smart Cities mission and total funding of ₹50,000 crores (US$7.2 billion) for the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) have been approved by the Cabinet.
In the 2014 Union budget of India, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley allocated ₹7,016 crores (US$1.0 billion) for the 150 smart cities. However, only ₹924 crores (US$130 million) of the allocated amount could be spent until February 2015. Hence, the 2015 Union budget of India allocated only ₹143 crores (US$21 million) for the project.
The first batch of 20 cities was selected. Known as 20 Lighthouse Cities in the first round of the All India City Challenge competition, they will be provided with central assistance of ₹200 crores (US$29 million) each during this financial year followed by ₹100 crores (US$14 million) per year during the next three years. The Urban Development Ministry had earlier released ₹2 crores (US$290,000) each to mission cities for the preparation of Smart City Plans.
The Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) program used a competition-based method as a means for selecting cities for funding, based on an area-based development strategy. Cities competed at the state level with other cities within the state. Then the state-level winner competed at the national level Smart City Challenge. Cities obtaining the highest marks in a particular round were chosen to be part of the mission.
The state governments were asked to nominate potential cities based on state-level competition, with overall cities across India limited to 100. In August 2015 the Ministry of Urban Development released the list of 98 nominees sent in by state governments.
All the participating cities from West Bengal (New Town, Kolkata, Bidhannagar, Durgapur, Haldia) have withdrawn from the Smart Cities Mission. Mumbai and Navi Mumbai from Maharashtra have also been withdrawn from the Smart Cities Mission. And they are those Cities which are selected to develop them as smart cities:
Port Blair, Kakinada, Tirupati, Visakhapatnam, Itanagar, Pasighat, Guwahati, Bhagalpur, BiharSharif, Muzaffarpur, Patna, Chandigarh, Bilaspur, Naya Raipur, Raipur, Silvassa, Diu, New Delhi, Panaji, Ahmedabad, Dahod, Gandhinagar, Rajkot, Surat, Vadodara, Faridabad, Karnal, Dharamsala, Jammu, Srinagar, Ranchi, Bangalore, Belgaum, Davangere, Mangalore, Shimoga, Tumakuru, Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram, Kavaratti, Bhopal, Gwalior, Indore, Jabalpur, Sagar, Satna, Ujjain, Amravati, Aurangabad, Hubli-Dharwad, Kalyan, Nagpur, Nashik, Pimpri Chinchwad, Pune, Solapur, Thane, Imphal, Aizawl, Kohima, Bhubaneswar, Raurkela, Oulgaret, Amritsar, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Ajmer, Jaipur, Kota, Udaipur, Gangtok, Namchi, Chennai, Coimbatore, Erode, Madurai, Salem, Thanjavur, Thoothukudi, Tiruchirappalli, Tirunelveli, Tiruppur, Vellore, Karimnagar, Warangal, Agartala, Agra, Aligarh, Allahabad, Bareilly, Jhansi, Kanpur, Lucknow, Moradabad, Saharanpur, Varanasi, Dehradun, New Town Kolkata.
These are the cities of India which develop by the Government of India. In these cities, development starts for making them smart cities and before 2023 We see that they become ready as smart cities. And guys If you Want more articles related to Technology then comment and if you want to read more articles about technology then go to techyindian.in website homepage.